Sunday, September 22, 2019
Experiencing Flow Essay There are a number of characteristics in ChristyÃ¢â¬â¢s basketball playing that defines her flow. First of all, he feels that she is Ã¢â¬Å"in the zoneÃ¢â¬ when she is playing. Basically, this reflects to a state of mind. She worked in all aspects of the game and she did it effortlessly. Her responses were automatic and all the shots she took got in. Christy seems to be in a state of Ã¢â¬Å"optimal experienceÃ¢â¬ as stated by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi in the book entitled, Ã¢â¬Å"FLOW: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceÃ¢â¬ . Christy feels a sense of exhilaration and enjoyment in what she does. She is able to anticipate the movement of her adversaries and she knows the court very well. Moreover, in all of these tasks, she is calm, and focused even under pressure. There are strategies that would help Christy experience flow more. Csikszentmihalyi describes the feeling as autoletic. It elevates life to a different level (2008). Basically, one needs to build inner harmony. This is done by how one interprets everyday experiences. This promotes happiness and an ability to control forces existing in the universe. Firstly, in order to achieve flow, one should take control of his body. Everything that the body does can be potentially enjoyable. The key to achieving flow is the enjoyment of doing. The important part of achieving flow is not the task in itself but how the task is being done. A person can achieve enjoyment by learning to impose order on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sensations. Christy needs to fully feel each sensation her body is experiencing. She must always determine her goals and break them into parts. These parts should be challenging in themselves so that she may sustain enjoyment. There are also ways of experiencing flow more often and longer. One way is to try new things that eventually lead to development of new skill. More enjoyment will be experienced with more skills developed. It is important that progress in these activities is monitored so that the flow can be experienced longer. It is also good to increase the difficulty of a challenge. Mastery of a particular skill may make one bored thus, a person such as Christy should try to find more challenges that she believes she can attain. Christy should also find more activities that she believes she can get flow from. It is essential that one needs to find many flow experiences as possible. Her coach plays a vital role in helping her experience flow more often. The coach can get her practicing with two opponents or shoot from the center of the court. This will not only avoid boredom but could increase her level of skill. Christy should also try to always get feedback from people on what she is doing. Thus, it is important for the coach to always monitor her performance and tell her about it. The coach should also make sure that the team is practicing in a place where there are little distractions. The coach should avoid making Christy do multitasking. He should develop a lot of activities during practice that will make her stay focused. Lapses in time during practices may destroy the momentum of the players and lessen the chances of achieving flow. All these strategies are important in order to achieve flow. Flow is essential for every experience because is promotes focus and total control of situations. It enables people to concentrate more effectively in their tasks. Understanding how to acquire it helps people to focus their attention at their will, without having others to get their attention. It also promotes happiness and enjoyment in all activities. Moreover, understanding flow can lead to understanding why people procrastinate on certain issues. References Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2008). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. Chicago, IL: Harper Perennial.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Lady Macbeth Letter Essay I have just finished reading a letter hand written from my husband Macbeth. He has informed me about a mysterious prediction that was made to him by three not mortal beings. The letter tells of how his prediction says he would be King of Scotland, and before this Thane of Cawdor. The foresight that he would be Cawdor was not incorrect Ã¢â¬â so why not to be king? My wonderful husband could become king and I, Queen of Scotland. Macbeth would be a noble king, far more worthy than Duncan. King Duncan is not fit to be called a man let alone king of a country grand as Scotland. My courageous Macbeth was the reason the war against the barbaric Norwegians was won, not Duncan. The only problem is by the time DuncanÃ¢â¬â¢s reign on the throne has ended, when the wretch is dead and buried, I too and Macbeth shall most likely be old and feeble Ã¢â¬â if not dead ourselves. I must find a way to put an end to Duncan, I cannot risk losing an opportunity as grand as this for Macbeth and myself. Perhaps murder is the only options, I could not commit such a thing myself, I have not the strength nor the willpower but Macbeth? The trouble would be convincing him, Duncan has such high opinions of my love and Macbeth returns the favour equally as well; but he loves me and I am sure I can convince him. Maybe when I show him what this could mean for us and use my feminine charm on him heÃ¢â¬â¢ll be convinced. I am not deceiving him, the eventual result is for his benefit, how I miss him so much already, heÃ¢â¬â¢s such a wonderful man and would make such a worthy king. I can hardly wait for him to return, itÃ¢â¬â¢ll be so wonderful. He was a born ruler, my true love; we shall be King and Queen Macbeth of Scotland. I do not care that Ã¢â¬ËGodÃ¢â¬â¢ chose King Duncan I will give my husband his crown and we shall rule. Even if I have to call down the evil spirits and take my emotions away, I want to feel like a man and kill him without remorse. I must go now and decide how he shall die, farewell.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Influences on Peer Groups and Friendships Peer groups, social competence and friendship. Indicate the relevance or not of the following: Theory, Cultural differences, Age differences, Gender differences and methodological issues. Introduction It has been established that humans are social creatures. It has also been established that humans have an inclination to form social groupings for a myriad of psychological reasons, such as friendship, acceptance, comfort, togetherness and so forth. However, the ways in which these grouping takes place are rather more complex than one might expect. An examination of group development paying particular regard to the effects of age, culture, gender and theoretical bias on the concepts of peer groups, social competence and friendship was embarked upon. An evaluation was conducted of some key research that has attempted to examine and explain much of the core concepts and issues involved in social grouping and development. Group Alignment, Group Development and Group Dynamics Levine et al (1998) indicated that groups were more likely to accommodate new members if there was an established relationship between newcomers and already established members. This was believed to be due to the need to establish socialisation of new members through mentors. The relationship of newcomer to mentor was heavily dependant upon age difference (Levine et al, 1998). Research on socialisation effects conducted by Irons and Moore (1985) revealed that the significance of a mentor in including subjects that were formerly excluded. They suggested that these formerly excluded subjects were people such as women and people of alternate colour (Irons Moore, 1985). It should be noted that the theoretics used by Irons and Moore are based upon patriarchy and racial prejudice. Tuckman (1965) devised five stage theories in group development theory and later with his colleague Tuckman and Jenson (1977) extended this concept further. Forming Potential members align themselves to a group. Storming Members try to influence the group. This creates conflict within the group. Norming Members try to reconcile conflicts. Norms and roles are established. Performing Members perform tasks in accordance to group need. Adjourning Members become distanced from the group and group activities due to the perception that group costs outweigh group benefits. Social Facilitation Zajonc (1965) suggested three important factors in the significance of social groups. The presence of others generates arousal in the subject and stimulates behaviour. Arousal increases the tendency to perform a desired response from the subject. The quality and success of this response is dependant upon the type of task. Zajonc concluded that a dominant response was perceived as being required from the subject within a group. This affected the performance of easy tasks in a positive manner and difficult tasks in a negative manner. Mere Exposure Theory, Evaluation Theory and Distraction/Conflict Theory The idea of mere presence is integral to ZajoncÃ¢â¬â¢s findings on social facilitation. That is to say that effects of others as stimuli are dictated to by presence alone. However, others have suggested otherwise. Cottrell (1968), Henchey and Glass (1968), put forward evaluation theory which suggested that the success of social facilitation is dependant upon those who are perceived to be able to evaluate performance. For instance, those in a subjects peer group with certain perceived traits, such as competence, would have either positive or negative effects on the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Put forward by Baron (1986) and Sanders (1981) distraction/conflict theory suggests that the presence of distractive stimuli will effect social facilitation. For instance, the subject will produce social facilitation effects when others, such as friends, create distraction or attentional conflict. Group Roles, Norms and Cohesion Forsyth (1990) Levine and Moreland (1990) suggest that there are three major contributors to the dimension of social groups: Social roles, social norms and group cohesion. Roles a set of expected behaviours that are evaluated by a subjects established group role (established by either formal title or informal appreciation). Norms a set of established rules of conduct defined by the group dynamic. Cohesion the forces that push a group closer together in terms of purpose, attitude and goal (Cartwright Zander, 1960). Using a methodology supporting the idea of biologically predetermined group roles and norms Bales (1958) suggested that group roles and norms were based upon the traditional family dynamic i.e. the elite male role of the breadwinner and the submissive female role of caretaker. Examination of his methodological approach revealed that gender difference was not a predefining factor. Wood and KartenÃ¢â¬â¢s (1986) experiments into role performance of cross sex groups, was revaluated by Dovidio et al (1988). It was found amongst men and women who felt equally as competent, that the roles adopted were often similar (Dovidio et al, 1988). The Effects of Group Cohesiveness and Friendship Following on from Cartwright and Zander (1960), Carron et al (1985) suggested that group cohesiveness was comprised of two significant factors: a groupÃ¢â¬â¢s orientation towards a goal and a groupÃ¢â¬â¢s orientation towards its social relationships. It was observed by Carron (1985) that goal setting was a much more important part to success than social relationships. He determined that the successful completion of goals would increase self esteem and belief in the roles and norms of a group, whereas social relationships, such as friendship, would be more likely to distract the group from its collective goals. Carron (1982) defined a cohesive group as having a collective identity, a sense of shared purpose and structured patterns of communication (Carron, 1982). These were considered essential elements to the effectiveness of a groupÃ¢â¬â¢s success and to itÃ¢â¬Ës cohesion. Collective identity the identity of a group seen in terms of its roles and norms. Sense of shared purpose an understanding of the importance of roles and the goals that they achieve Structured patterns of communication group acknowledgement, understanding, appreciation and communication of each roles needs and requirements. Conclusion The need for social groups drives the subject to undergo many developments in terms of social facilitation. It would seem from our examination that these factors are driven through a variety of factors. From the research we can see that group alignment is dependant upon relationships based upon age difference. It would also appear that group development requires challenges and subsequent reconciliationÃ¢â¬â¢s from certain subjects. It also appears that group dynamics are not necessarily composed of culturally or racially defined roles. Rather, it would appear that roles are intrinsic to socially defined goals and needs. The subject within the group would appear to be driven by other members in a way that is not quite as simple as, say, group conformity or peer competitiveness. It would also appear that group success is dependant upon the successful achievement of role defined goals. Furthermore, these role defined goals seem to be effected negatively by intimate individual relationships, such as friendship. In essence, theory, age, gender, culture and methodology are relevant to the way in which we understand peer groups, social competence and friendship and have psychological impact upon the development of social groupings and the very concept of ourselves as social creatures. Bibliography Bales, R, F., (1958) Task roles and social roles in problem-solving groups. In E. E. Maccoby, T.M. Newcomb, E. L. Hartley (Eds.), Readings in Social Psychology (3rd Ed., p. 437-447). New York: Holt. Baron, R, S., (1986) Distraction-conflict theory: Progress and problems. In L, Berkowitz (Ed.) Advances in experimental social psychology. Orlando: Academic Press. Carron, A.V., Widmeyer, W.N., Brawley, L.R. (1985). The development of an instrument to assess cohesion in sport teams: The Group Environment Questionnaire. Journal of Sport Psychology, 7. Carron, A.V. (1982). Cohesiveness in sport groups: Interpretations and considerations. Journal of Sport Psychology, 4. Cartwright, D., Zander, A., (1960) Group Dynamics: Research and Theory. (2nd ed. p. 69-94) Evanston: Row Peterson. Cottrell, N, B., (1968) Performance in the presence of other human beings: Mere presence, audience, and affiliation effects. In E, C., Simmel, R, A, Hoppe, G, A, Milton (Eds.) Social Facilitation and Intimate Behaviour (p. 91-110). Boston: Allyn Bacon. Davidio, J, F, Ellyson, S, L., Keating, C, F., Heltmen, K., Brown, C, E., (1988) The relationship of social power to visual displays of dominance between men and women. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 233-242. Forsyth, D, R., (1990) Group Dynamics (2nd ed.) Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole. Henchy, T., Glass, D, C., (1968) Evaluation apprehension and the social facilitation of dominant and subordinate responses. Journal of personality and social psychology, 10, 446-454. Irons, E, D., Moore, G, W., (1985) Black Managers: The Case of the Banking Industry. New York: Praeger. Levine, J, M., Moreland, R, L., (1990) Progress in small groups research. Annual Review of Social Psychology, 41, 585-634. Levine, J, M., Moreland, R, L., Ryan, C, S., (1998) Group Socialisation and Intergroup Realtions. In C,Sedikides, J, Schopler, C, A, Inscko (Eds.) Intergroup Cognition and Intergroup Behaviour. Mahaw, NJ: Erlbaum. Sanders, G, S., (1981) Driven by distraction: An integrative review of social facilitation theory and research. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 17, 227-251. Tuckman, B, W., (1965) Developmental sequence in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63, 384-399. Tuckman, B, W., Jenson, M, A., (1977) Stages of small group development revisited. Group and Organisation Studies, 2, 419-427. Wood, W., Karten, S, J., (1986) Sex Differences in interaction style as product of perceived sex differences in competence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 341-347. Zajonc, R, B., (1965) Social Facilitation. Science, 149, 269-274.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
A Zipper for Pee-Wee Herman Leaders in childrens television are and always have been concerned about what programs actually make it on the air. Most early programming for children of school age in the 1950's was the western program. Another type was the science-fiction thriller which tended to be based on hero's from the radio, comics, and films. However, a favorite of the youngest audience was the children's equivalent of the variety show. This usually contained circus, puppet, and/or animal segments. "Super Circus", which aired in 1949, consisted of music, circus acts, animals, and of course, clowns. In 1952, yet another type of program came about which reached a very similiar audience as the circus variety shows. It was called "The Ding Dong School". The Ding Dong School offered the conversation, low-key instruction, commercials, and entertainment of Miss. Frances, a professional teacher. With the help of these types of shows, a new genre was born. Children's television which was a mixture of songs, education, fun, and a whole lot more. In 1969, the first airing of "Sesame Street" took place. Sesame Street had programs which were sponsored by different letters of the alphabet or numbers each day, and relied on very short, animated cartoons with live and puppet segments which kept the interest of preschool children. The show was an instant outstanding success, and still broadcasts today. In 1970, "Mr. Roger's Neighborhood" was born. Mr. Fred Roger's used puppets and music to teach patience and cooperation, while providing guidance to help children cope with feelings and frustrations. Mr. Roger's land of makebelieve's handpuppet characters interacted with humans in the mythical kingdom of King Friday XIII. There, the puppets and humans would deal with their feelings and emotions as they solve typical, everyday problems. This new genre of programming was a sensation. The children loved it, and the parents approved of it. During the following years, many new shows came about which still fit this genre. In the year 1986, yet another show was born into childrens television. "Pee-Wee's Playhouse". This series, starring host Pee-Wee Herman (Paul Reubens) used animation, puppets, and vintage cartoons to entertain and educate its audience. Between Pee-Wee Herman and his extraordinary playhouse, children were given the opportunity to let their imaginations go crazy. The "playhouse" had no permanent residents, that is, besides the furnishings. Not ordinary furnishings, you see, Pee-Wee's furnishings could move, talk, dance, and sing. These "characters" could be seen at the playhouse on a regular basis. Some of the favorites were: Globey, a talking globe who would show Pee-Wee the countries that his pen-pal's letters came from; Magic Screen, a toy of Pee-Wee's that enabled him to actually get
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Background Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Critical thinking can be used in certain aspects of problem solving and requires various types of skills. People must be motivated and not afraid to use their critical thinking skills to solve various troubles that can and will arise. Problem Statement What are the issues and the conclusion? We as readers and listeners in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society always seem to believe everything that we read and hear without digging a little deeper to actually find out if it is the truth. Analysis Critical thinking is a skill that we are not born with, but with some knowledge and practice it is a tool that can be used very effectively. Becoming a critical thinker takes time, practice and lots of thought. We as humans always try to force our view upon other people and of course we assume that we are always right. From the other perspective when we have an opinion forced upon us we naturally get defensive. We as critical thinkers need to be open to other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion but listen with caution to all of the facts before we make any assumptions or judgments. Recommendations 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã DonÃ¢â¬â¢t always believe everything that you hear and always ask yourself what the issue is. 2.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Always try to find the conclusion and look for indicator words. 3.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Remember what the conclusion is not. Conclusions will not be any of the following: a.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Examples b.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Statistics c.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Definitions d.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Background Information e.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Evidence S.W.O.T My selected recommendation is: Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã DonÃ¢â¬â¢t always believe everything that you hear and always ask yourself what the issue is. Strengths Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Understanding and listening will make you more aware of the real issue and will help you become a better critical thinker. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Learning to listen will help you in many aspects of not only your personal life but it can be a very strong aide on your professional life. Weakness Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã We can become very skeptical about everything. Sometimes we need to sit back and ask ourselves when is critical thinking necessary. Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Critical thinking is a very powerful tool and used for the wrong purpose you can damage ones character. Opportunity Ã¢â¬ ¢Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã We as critical thinkers have the opportunity to see things very clearly and realize when the wool is being pulled over our eyes.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The transition from high school to college in itself is a frightening experience in some way for everyone whether it be moving away from home or the vastness of a college campus others learn from these new experiences. Many very important lessons are learned outside the classroom in college but there is also so much to be learned about who you are in the classroom as well. When someone first sees Composition I on their schedule the first day of college they might think that this class is going to be tedious, boring, and nothing but writing essays, after a few class periods though they will begin to realize that this class is much more than that. Composition one from my perspective was like dipping your toes into water to test and see if you are ready to go in or not, the water may be too warm or cold at first but that is no reason to shy away from it, if they jump right in they will find that the positives far outweigh the negatives. My first semester of college was spent at The University of the Incarnate Word it was my first real taste of what college was going to be like and I very much enjoyed it but the class that was most surpirsing in how much that was learned to me was composition I. In the course catalog this classÃ¢â¬â¢s description was, Ã¢â¬Å" Part of the UIW Core Curriculum, this is a writing-intensive course focusing on numerous rhetorical modes to develop main ideas. This course introduces students to creative, academic and business writing and communication, emphasizing grammar and syntax, with a view to increasing expository skills and critical thinking abilityÃ¢â¬ . Now to be terribly honest this description made this class seem extremely dull just based on the description but even so I was there on the first day ready to learn. The class was small and more relaxed than I thought it would be it turned out that this class was going to be the exact opposite of the description I had read. The assignments that were given in writing always forced the class to think not just about their own world but the bigger picture of how what they did affected the people around them and the world, for example they wrote about the short story by Ray Bradbury There Will Come Soft Rains and how they thought the world was becoming more and more like the story it gave a much greater sense of awareness of how change was needed in the community and to become more involved with each other and appreciate one another and not be so consumedÃ by technology. They were also given a project on conservation or countries that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have clean sources of water and how they were affected by them It was an eye opening experience seeing how much others suffered and couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have access to clean water in different places around the world. Such as in an article I read in The New York Times where it was said,Ã¢â¬ Three -fifths of all water supplies are Ã¢â¬Å"relatively badÃ¢â¬ or wo rse. Roughly half of rural residents lack access to drinking water that meets international standards.Ã¢â¬ It gave a much greater sense of compassion for those who donÃ¢â¬â¢t have access to something so basic as clean drinking water. In the words of the Dalai Lama, Ã¢â¬Å"Love and compassion are necessities, not luxuries. Without them, humanity cannot survive.Ã¢â¬ This quote is the perfect representation of what I learned in that class. Compassion is probably the greatest quality you can bring to college with you and in outside of college as well because without compassion weÃ¢â¬â¢re not even human anymore. The greatest lessons you will learn in your life will be in your college years, you find who you are and who you want to become after you graduate. When you first get to college youÃ¢â¬â¢re just getting your feet wet and testing the water but once you start immersing yourself in your classes thatÃ¢â¬â¢s when you really take the plunge into the pool. There are certain classes you will take that will help you to have that drive to be better and change the fear or hesitation yo u first had when you started college and those classes will better who you are as a person and make the whole college experience worth it.
Monday, September 16, 2019
The 1 999 film, Ã¢â¬Å"Cider House RulesÃ¢â¬ , directed by Lease Hailstorm and based on a novel written in 1985 by John Irving, portrays the respective of abortions back when women did not have the right to choose. The movie takes place during World War II in America, when the struggle between women and society over the laws of abortion was the most evident. It is with consideration of our history, and the examples depicted In the movie Ã¢â¬Å"Cider House Rules,Ã¢â¬ that I believe In each woman's right to choose whether or not abortion Is meant for their particular situation.There has always been a heated debate on human rights, and that of a woman and her fetus. The question to whom should have the right to choose and the right to life is where this argument has continued to go back and Roth. Ã¢â¬Å"Cider House RulesÃ¢â¬ gives a modern perspective on abortions during the past, and allows us to appreciate the rights we have now in a contemporary society. Unlike the present, d uring the sass's when the movies time frame was based, abortions were illegal and women did not have the right to choose.No matter what the circumstances, a woman had to carry the fetus to full term; her only options being to keep it or to give It up for adoption. At that time, there was no other legal choice. Without options, women during this era would set out to find a doctor who would illegally abort their fetus for them. Considering the national ban of contraceptives was not uplifted until 1965, the only legal way for a woman to avoid pregnancy was through abstinence (Impressionable). This does not account for the unavoidable impregnation from rape or incest.The uncertainty and inability to protect your body from having to bear an unwanted child is why each case should be determined separately. Women deserve the right to choose, because the law is unable to acknowledge and determine each case individually. Ã¢â¬Å"Cider House RulesÃ¢â¬ showcases many of these situations. The movie is a testament of a young man trying to find his lace in American society. Along the way, his morals and beliefs are tested. Homer Wells, who was twice adopted and returned, is raised by the orphanage doctor, Wilbur Larch.Larch quickly realizes Homer's potential and with his utilitarianism ethics In which he believed that, moot have to be of use,Ã¢â¬ began to teach Homer how to be an unlicensed doctor (Hailstorm, 1999). Being trained specifically In the field of genealogy, DRP. Larch performed Illegal abortions for women and believed In a woman's right to happiness and the ability to choose. Homer is an anti-abortionist mentor, DRP. Larch, with performing illegal abortions. Throughout the entirety of the movie, he is challenged by witnessing women wanting to terminate their pregnancies.The question that remains is whether Homer's values will stay true based on his views, or differ with each situation. The first scenario of abortion was presented in the beginning of the movi e. Homer found a twelve year old young girl exhibiting dangerous symptoms. She was quickly rushed to surgery, where DRP. Larch voiced to Homer, Ã¢â¬Å"If she'd come to you four months ago and asked you for a simple D and C, what would you have decided to do? Nothing? This is what doing nothing gets you, Homer.It means that someone else is going to do the Job-?some moron who doesn't know how! Ã¢â¬ (Hailstorm, 1999). The girl eventually died due to a botched abortion that left her uterus pierced by a knitting needle. One would first have to question if she was able to consent to sexual intercourse. In Kantian grounds, Ã¢â¬Å"any form of coercion would be morally object-able on Kantian grounds. This is one of the strongest reasons for prohibiting sex with children- namely, that they are not independent enough to resist pressure or coercionÃ¢â¬ (Ethics, 214).As a result, any pregnancy resulting with a child Ã¢â¬Å"consentingÃ¢â¬ to sexual intercourse could morally be aborted. F urthermore, if she is not mature enough to consent to sexual intercourse, then presumably, she should not be morally liable to birth or care for any offspring that happens as a result of this. From a Utilitarian point of view, one would have to consider the consequences of having a baby at such a young age. If the consequences of a young mother keeping her child overshadows the things that would make her happy in life, it would morally be tolerable for an abortion to transpire.Other consequences that would have to be evaluated are how one so young would be able to provide for an infant, along with the happiness of the young mother and child in effect. According to Pregnancy-Info. Net, Ã¢â¬Å"A child born to a teenage mother is also seen to be at a disadvantage in society. Ã¢â¬ Facts they base this statement on include Ã¢â¬Å"Newborns of teen mothers tend to have a lower birth weight. As they get older, they are more likely to do poorly in school and have a greater chance of exper iencing abuse and neglect.It has been found that sons of teenage mothers are more likely to wind up in prison. Daughters of teen mothers have an increased risk of experiencing a teenage pregnancy themselves. Ã¢â¬ With Utilitarian reasoning, ethically it would be permissible for this child to abort a pregnancy that would threaten the happiness of both mother and child. If abortions had not been illegal during the time that this movie takes place, and the girl was able to obtain an abortion in a sanitary and safe environment with a professional, then the girl would have survived.The second scenario, in which Young Homer's anti-abortionist morals are tested, is with his soon-to-be secret lover Candy Kendall. She and her boyfriend Let. Wally Worthington reach out to DRP. Larch for an abortion. There was never an explanation cited for the requirement of the abortion, leaving the audience to presume that they were not prepared to rear a child. DRP. Larch has always made it clear that, Ã¢â¬Å"If you expect people to be responsible for their children, you have to give them the right to decide whether or not to have childrenÃ¢â¬ (Hailstorm, 1999).However, Homer has always stood to his grounds that a child deserves to be alive under any circumstance. His naturalistic beliefs were that it is wrong to end a life Church are based on natural law. Thomas Aquinas was a Dominican friar who also seed natural law to argue ethically. In Ã¢â¬Å"On Natural LaW' Aquinas states, Ã¢â¬Å"In the first place, there is the inclination shared by all substances in as much as they naturally desire self-preservationÃ¢â¬ (Ethics, 105). Quinoa's argument further supports that abortion goes against the preservation of the human species, and it denies the fetus to live to its full potential.From this point of view, Candy is immoral for aborting because she is denying the fetus the right to its potential life. If we are depending on the status of the fetus, then some would argue that ther e should be criteria to what we consider to be a person. Others reject this position by drawing a distinction between human being and human person, arguing that while the fetus is innocent and biologically human, it is not a person with a right to life. In support of this distinction, some propose a list of criteria as markers of Persephone.For example, Mary Ann Warren suggests consciousness (at least the capacity to feel pain), reasoning, self motivation, the ability to communicate, and self- awarenessÃ¢â¬ (Wisped). With this argument, Candy was morally correct to abort an unwanted child because people like Mary Ann Warren believe that a fetus does not exhibit all the criteria of Persephone, thus does not have the right to life. Candy utilized her options by choosing to abort the fetus because her bodily rights exceed that of the fetus. The law at the time would have prevented Candy from attaining an abortion, so she did so illegally because she felt it is what is best for her.P eople should have the option to decide whether or not they are ready to be a parent for themselves. Our final scenario presented in Ã¢â¬Å"Cider House RulesÃ¢â¬ is that of Rose. She is one of the migrant apple pickers who befriend Homer. Her father, Mr.. Rose, was the leader of their team. After their return from the prior season, it became evident that Rose was pregnant. What truly tested Homer's anti-abortionist ethics is when he became aware of who Rose was impregnated byÃ¢â¬ ¦ Her father, Mr.. Rose. In this case, all of Homer's arguments of sexual restraint and pro life could not apply to her injustice.It seems that this was the only case that shook Homer into believing in a woman's right to choose. Some feel that it is an injustice for a women to carry a pregnancy resulting from a sexual assault. It is also said that a pregnancy caused by rape or incest is the result of a grave injustice. This would remind the woman for nine months of the violence committed against her and would increase her mental anguish. The victim should not be obliged to carry the fetus to viability because Ã¢â¬Å"The fetus is an aggressor against the woman's integrity and personal lifeÃ¢â¬ (Backbite).Rose had a major injustice inflicted on her and morally should not have to bear a child that was forced. Finally, we must consider the views of Judith Jarvis Thomson. She creates an imaginary scenario in which a famous violinist has kidnapped you in the middle of the night, and is hooked up to your kidneys to purify his blood. She then compares the violinist to a fetus, who is a living viable person, and asks if you should morally have to save his life. Comparable to a fetus, the violinist has not asked permission and has connected his existence to your body.Thomson argues that even though it would be charitable of you to save the life of the violinist, or fetus, you are not obligated to do so. Ã¢â¬Å"Such views are consistent with a position that stressed that women are persons and have the right to bodily integrity as do other people, and others, even the noble purposes such as the nurturing of childrenÃ¢â¬ (Ethics, 180). Applying Rose's pregnancy due to incest, and the examples by Thomson, Rose has the right to abort because the acts were committed against her will and the fetus will grow in her without permission.It is with this reasoning that Homer aborted Rose's pregnancy. Since society had deemed abortions illegal during this time, she would have had to birth a child that was born through incest. It would not be society, but Rose who would have to live with the ultimate reminder of her father's injustice. That is why Rose, rather than society, should have the right to choose what actions to take. The Journey of the character Homer Wells witnesses three scenarios in which women have aborted their fetus.He began with his findings of an anonymous young girl who died from her botched abortion, during which his anti-abortionist ethics were unchanging. He then met Candy, who received an abortion by his mentor, DRP. Larch. His argument on controlling your sexual urges was contradicted with his affair with Candy. Homer finally went against his pro- life ethics by personally aborting Rose's fetus that was conceived through an incestuous relationship with her father. By the ND of the film, Homer's ideals were not crushed, but were altered by the realism of the world.Realistically we must recognize that Ã¢â¬Å"Cider House RulesÃ¢â¬ is Just a fictional story that depicts real situations that do occur. Every year, millions of women have an abortion and every abortion is backed by different reasons. In the end, it is not up to society to Judge a woman for terminating her pregnancy. Debates and reasoning for or against abortion will always exist. However, history shows that even when illegal, abortions were executed and sought after. In the long run, either legally or illegally, omen will implement the use of abortions whether society h old them as legal or illegal.